Thursday, September 4, 2014

Hadith Narrated by 'Ali ibn Abi Talib: Part III

It was narrated by 'Affan from Shu'ba, reported by 'Ali ibn Mudrik, who said: I heard Abu Zur'a ibn 'Amr ibn Jarir who narrates from 'Abdullah ibn Nujay from his father from 'Ali from the Prophet, that he [the Prophet] said: 'The angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or an image.'
Hadith #815, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by 'Abdullah from Salih ibn 'Abdullah al-Tirmidhi from Hammad from 'Asim from 'Ubaydullah al-Qawariri from Hammad, who [al-Qawariri] said in his report, from 'Asim ibn Abu al-Najud from Zirr, meaning Ibn Hubaysh, from his father Juhayfa, who said: I heard 'Ali say: 'Shall I not tell you of the best of this Umma after its prophet [Muhammad]?  [It is] Abu Bakr.'  Then he said: 'Shall I not tell you of the best of this Umma after Abu Bakr?  [It is] 'Umar.'
Hadith #833, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by Muhammad ibn Ja'far from Shu'ba from Salama ibn Kuhayl from al-Sha'bi that 'Ali flogged Shuraha on Thursday and stoned her [to death] on Friday. saying: 'I flogged her in accordance with the Book of God [the Qur'an, for adultery] and stoned her in accordance with the sunna of the Messenger of God.'
Hadith #839, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by 'Abdullah from Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Asadi Luwaun from Yahya ibn Abu Za'ida from 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Ishaq from Ziyad ibn Zayd al-Suwa'i from Abu Juhayfa from 'Ali, who said: 'It is from the sunna [of the Prophet] that in prayer one places one hand over the other beneath the navel.'
Hadith #875, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by Asud ibn 'Amir from Shu'ba, who said: The command reported from Abu Muhammad from 'Ali, who said the Prophet sent him to Madina and commanded him to level the graves.
Hadith #881, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

 It was narrated by Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Razi from Salama ibn al-Fadl from Muhammad ibn Ishaq from Zayd ibn Abu Habib from Marthad ibn 'Abdullah al-Yazayni from 'Abdullah ibn Zubayr al-Ghafa'i from 'Ali ibn Abi Talib that the Messenger of God used to ride a donkey named 'Ufayr.
Hadith #886, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by Husayn ibn al-Hasan al-Ashqar from Ibn Qabus ibn Abu Zabyan al-Janbi from his father from his grandfather from 'Ali, who said: 'When I killed Marhab [ibn Abu Zaynab, a chief of the Arab Jewish Khaybar Oasis tribes killed in the Battle of Khaybar], I brought his head to the Prophet (lama qataltu Marhab jintu bi-rasihi ila al-Nabi).'
Hadith #888, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by 'Abdullah from Shayban Abu Muhammad from Hammad ibn Salama from Yunus ibn Khabbab from Jarir ibn Hayyan from his father that 'Ali said to his father [Ibn Khabbab's]: 'I shall certainly send you on the same [type of] mission as the Messenger of God  sent me on: Level every grave and destroy every idol.'
Hadith #889, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by 'Ali ibn Bahr from 'Abdullah ibn Ibrahim ibn 'Umar ibn Kayyan,m who said of his father, I heard him report that 'Abdullah ibn Wahb from his father from Abu Khalifa from 'Ali ibn Talib, who said the Messenger of God said: 'God is kind and loves kindness, and He rewards kindness in a way that He does not reward harshness.'
Hadith #902, Musnad Ibn Hanbal 


Sunday, August 31, 2014

Hadith on Jihad: Part III

It was narrated by Hisham ibn 'Ammar from al-Walid ibn Muslim from Yahya ibn al-Harith al-Dhimari from al-Qasim from Abu Umama from the Prophet, who said: 'The one who does not fight [man lam yaghzu] or equip a warrior [lam yujahhizu ghazi-yan] or remain behind to care for a warrior's family [lam yakhluf ghaziyan fi ahlihi bi-khayr], God will send upon him a calamity before Yaum al-Qiyama.'
-Hadith #2762, Sunan Ibn Maja

It was narrated by Hisham ibn 'Ammar from al-Walid from Abu Rafi'a, who was Isma'il ibn Rafi'a, from Sumayy, mawla Abu Bakr from Abu Salih from Abu Hurayra, who said that the Messenger of God, who said: 'The one who meets God without a mark on him from [jihad] in His path [fi sabilihi], he will meet Him [God] with a deficiency [laqiya Allah wafihi thulma].'
-Hadith #2763, Sunan Ibn Maja

It was narrated by 'Isa ibn Yunus al-Ramli from Muhammad ibn Shu'ayb ibn Shabur from Sa'id ibn Khalid ibn Abu Tuwayl, who said: I heard Anas ibn Malik say: I heard the Messenger of God say: 'Standing guard in the path of God [harasu laylat fi sabil Allah] is better than a man fasting and praying among his people [afdal siyam rajul waqiyamihi fi ahlihi alf-a sana-tin].  The year is 360 days, and a day is like a thousand years.'
-Hadith #2770, Sunan Ibn Maja

It was narrated by Ahmad bin 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Bakkar ibn 'Abd al-Malik ibn al-Walid ibn al-Walid ibn Bushr ibn Abu Arta from al-Walid from Shayban from al-A'mash from Abu Salih from Ibn 'Abbas from the Prophet, who said: 'If you are called up to fight, then go forth to fight [idha astunfiru-tum fa-infiru].'
-Hadith 2772, Sunan Ibn Maja

It was narrated by Ya'qub ibn Humayd ibn Kasib from Sufyan ibn 'Uyayna from Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman, mawla Abu Talha, from 'Isa ibn Talha from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet said: 'The dust (acquired) in the path of God (fighting in jihad) and the smoke of the Hellfire will never be mixed within a Muslim.'
-Hadith 2774, Sunan Ibn Maja

It was narrated by Muhammad ibn Sa'id ibn Yazid ibn Ibrahim al-Tustari from Abu 'Asim from Shabib from Anas ibn Malik, who said: the Messenger of God said: 'The one who goes out in the path of God [man raha rawhat fi sabil Allah], for him will be the same amount of musk on Yaum al-Qiyama as the amount of dusk which came on him (from jihad fi sabil Allah).'
-Hadith #2775, Sunan Ibn Maja 

Hadith Narrated by 'Ali ibn Abi Talib: Part II

It was narrated by Hajjaj from Isra'il from Abu Ishaq from Hani from 'Ali, who said: 'Al-Hasan most resembles the Messenger of God in [his] chest and head, and al-Husayn most resembles the Prophet in what is lower [on the body] than that.
-Hadith #774, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by 'Affan from Abu 'Awana from 'Abd al-A'la al-Tha'labi from Abu 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami from 'Ali from the Prophet, who said that he [the Prophet] said: 'Whoever deliberately lies about his dreams will be made to tie a grain of barley on Yaum al-Qiyama.'
-Hadith #789, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by 'Abdullah from Muhammad bin Sulayman Luwayn from Hudayj from Abu Ishaq from Abu Hudhayfa from 'Ali, who said the Prophet said: 'I went outside when the moon rose as if it was half a bowl (jafna).'  Then he said: 'Tonight is Laylat al-Qadr.'
-Hadith #793, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by Ibrahim ibn Hasan ibn Hasan ibn 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, from his father, that his grandfather said:  'Ali ibn Abi Talib said: The Messenger of God said: 'At the end of time (akhir al-zaman), there will appear a people called the Rafida [and] they will reject Islam [yarfuduna al-Islam].'
Hadith #808, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by 'Abdullah from 'Abd al-A'la ibn Hammad from Dawud ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-'Attar from Abu 'Abdullah Maslama al-Razi from Abu 'Amr al-Bajali, from Abd al-Malik ibn Sufyan al-Thaqafi from Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali from Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya, who said that his father said: The Messenger of God said: 'Verily God the Almighty loves the servant [of His] who often falls into sin and who then repents greatly.'
Hadith #810, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

It was narrated by 'Abdullah from Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr al-Muqaddimi from Hammad ibn Zayd from Ma'mar from al-Zuhayri from 'Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali from 'Ali, who said that the Prophet on the day of Khaybar forbade mut'a [mut'a marriage] and the flesh of donkeys.'
-Hadith #812, Musnad Ibn Hanbal

Sunday, August 24, 2014

Hadith Narrated by 'Ali ibn Abi Talib: Part I

It was narrated by Waki'a from Sufyan from Habib from Abu Wa'il from Abu al-Hayyaj al-Asadi, who said: 'Ali said to me, 'I shall send you on the same mission as that on which the Messenger of God (upon him be peace) sent me [Ab'athuka 'ala ma ba'athani 'alayhi Rasul Allah]: Do not leave any image without erasing it [an la tada'a timthala-an ila tamasta-hu] and any elevated (ornate) grave without leveling it [wa la qabr-an mushrifa-an ila sawwayta-hu].
Hadith #741, Musnad Ibn Hanbal (in the Musnad 'Ali ibn Abi Talib); sahih isnad

It was narrated by Waki'a from Sharik from Simak from Hunash from 'Ali, who said: The Messenger of God (upon him be peace) said: 'If two individuals engaged in a dispute sit before you, do not speak until you have listened to the second one in the same way as you have listened to the first.
Hadith #745, Musnad Ibn Hanbal (in the Musnad 'Ali ibn Abi Talib); hasan hadith, da'if isnad

It was narrated by Muhammad bin Ishaq from Yazid bin Abu Habib from 'Abd al-'Aziz bin Abu al-Sa'aba from 'Abdullah ibn Zurayr al-Ghafiqi, who said: I heard 'Ali say: 'The Messenger of God (upon him be peace) held some gold in his right hand and some silk in his left hand; he then raised both his hands and said: 'These two things are forbidden for the men of my Umma.'
Hadith #750, Musnad Ibn Hanbal (in the Musnad 'Ali ibn Abi Talib); sahih hadith

It was narrated by Muhammad bin Ja'far from Shu'ba from Abu Ishaq from Najiyya bin Ka'b, who reported from 'Ali, who  came to the Prophet (upon him be peace) and said: 'Abu Talib has died.'  The Prophet (upon him be peace) said: 'Go and bury him.'  'Ali then said: 'He died a mushrik.'  He [the Prophet] said: 'Go and bury him.'  'Ali then said: 'When I had finished burying him, I came back to the Prophet (upon him be peace) and he said, 'Do ghusl.' '
Hadith #759, Musnad Ibn Hanbal (in the Musnad 'Ali ibn Abi Talib); sahih isnad

 It was narrated by Muhammad bin Ja'far from Sa'id...Abu 'Aruba...from al-Hakam bin 'Utayba from 'Abd al-Rahman bin Abu Layla from 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, who said: 'The Messenger of God (upon him be peace) instructed me to sell two slave brothers [ghulamayn akhawayn], so I sold them, but separately [fa-bi'tuhuma wa farraqtu baynahuma].  I mentioned this to the Prophet (upon him be peace) and he said: 'Go and find the two of them, take them both back, and do not sell them except together.'
Hadith #760, Musnad Ibn Hanbal (in the Musnad 'Ali ibn Abi Talib); hasan hadith, da'if isnad due to it being broken/munqaṭiʻ

Saturday, August 23, 2014

Hadith on Jihad: Part II

"Imam al-Sadiq said: 'He who is slain in the path of God will not recount anything of his sins [his sins will be forgiven]."
-Hadith from Furu' al-Kafi, vol. 5

"It was narrated by Abu Zakariyya Yahya bin Durust (al-Basri) from Abu Isma'il from Yahya bin Abu Kathir from Abu Salama from Bushr bin Sa'id from Zayd bin Khalid al-Juhani from the Messenger of God (upon him be peace], who said: 'Who so ever prepares a ghazi in the path of God, it will be as if he has participated in a military expedition (faqad ghaza), and who so ever looks after the family of a ghazi, it will be as if he has participated in a military expedition (faqad ghaza)."
-Hadith #1628 from the Jami' of al-Tirmidhi (sahih hadith)

Friday, August 22, 2014

Hadith on Jihad: Part I

"It was narrated from Abu Bakr bin Abu Shayba and Abu Kurayb, who said: It was narrated from 'Ubaydullah bin Musa from Shayban from Firas from 'Atiyya from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri from the Messenger (upon him be peace): 'The mujahid in God's path has a guarantee from God.  Either He will raise him [the mujahid] to His forgiveness and mercy, or He will send him back with a reward [ajr] and war spoils [ghanima].  The example of the mujahid in God's path is that of one who fasts and prays at night without stopping, until he returns."
Sunan Ibn Majah, hasan hadith 2754 

"It was narrated by Abu Bakr bin Abu Shayba from Yunus bin Muhammad from Layth bin Sa'd from Yazid bin 'Abdullah bin al-Had from al-Walid bin Abu al-Walid from 'Uthman bin 'Abdullah bin Suraqa from 'Umar bin al-Khattab, who said: 'I heard the Messenger of God (upon him be peace) say:' 'Whoever equips a ghazi in the path of God until he is fully equipped and supplied will have a reward like his [the ghazi], until he dies or returns.'"
Sunan Ibn Majah, sahih hadith 2758

"It was narrated from Hisham bin 'Ammar from 'Abd al-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam from Abiya from Mus'ab bin Thabit from 'Abdullah bin al-Zubayr, who said: 'Uthman bin 'Affan addressed the people  and he said, O' People!  I heard a hadith from the Messenger of God (upon him be peace) and nothing kept me from narrating it to you except for the fact that I did not want to lose you and your companionship.  So it is up to you.  I heard the Messenger of God (upon him be peace) saying, 'Whoever spends a night guarding the frontier [man rabata laylatan fi sabil Allah] in the path of God, it will be like a thousand nights spent in fasting and prayer [kanat ka-alf laylat siyamiha waqiyamiha].'"
Sunan Ibn Majah, da'if hadith 2766

Monday, July 28, 2014

Grand Ayatullah, the Marja' al-Taqlid, 'Ali Husayni Sistani on Sighting the Moon during Ramadan

Inquiries from his Eminence Ayatullah Sistani about crescent visibility and its proof

Question 1: His Eminence (may Allah prolong his life) mentioned that the crescent cannot be proven by means of astronomers (i.e. astronomical calculations). However, such calculations are based on solid scientific foundations and meticulous mathematical calculations, and the probability of inaccuracy is negligible. Moreover, astronomers continue to prepare tables for sunrise and moon (appearance) as well as the visibility of various planets in the solar system, and it is observed that such tables and calculations are extremely accurate, and did not deviate from reality, at least in this century, not even once. In addition, scientists' planetariums' calculations of the moon entering its interlunar state and exiting it as well as determination of the time of its visibility and angular distance measured by circular angles from the sun and its distance from the horizon measured by circular angles and determining its distance and nearness to Earth, are all meticulous information achieved with certainty, known by scholars and students of astronomy, and are not based on doubt. Therefore, why can we not depend on reliable astronomical data about the birth of the crescent to determine the arrival of a new month?
Answer 1: What is understood from jurisprudential proofs about the start of a lunar month is the visibility of the crescent on the horizon by the naked eye, given no interference of clouds and other natural obstacles. So the birth of the crescent alone and its presence in the horizon in a manner that is not seeable or observed only by special magnifying and planetary tools, is not sufficient enough.
Therefore, based on such understanding, the information provided by astronomers about the birth of the crescent and its exit from the inter-lunar state does not suffice the start of a new lunar month even if it is based on certified mathematical calculations.

As for their information about the possibility of seeing the moon with the naked eye in some areas, either generally or given clear visibility conditions, as they say, it depends on two elements:

1) Specific astronomical calculations putting the crescent in those locations, given its age, degree above horizon, distance from the sun, and other factors influencing its visibility; and,
2) Astronomical experiments based on observing the crescent physically to confirm the attainment of the minimum requirements for visibility with the naked eye, given its age, degree above horizon, distance from the sun, etc.

The latter point is where the opinion of astronomers differ. For example, some indicate the possibility of sighting the crescent with the naked eye when it is 14 hours old, while others state the minimum time is 16 hours, and even others say 18 hours, and so on. Moreover, some claim visibility while the crescent is 4 degrees above the horizon at the time of sunset, while others say the minimum requirement for visibility is 5 degrees, and a group states it is 6 degrees, and others mention other degrees. Similar differences are found in other determining factors as well.

Based on that, a follower of the Islamic jurisprudence (mukallaf) cannot take the word of astronomers about the visibility of the crescent in so and so area, unless it is confirmed that the crescent can be clearly seen by the naked eye, based on narrations forbidding from reliance on opinion and speculation with regards to crescent sighting, such as the saying of Imam Al-Baqir (as), "When you see the crescent then fast, and when you see it then break your fast, and it is not about opinion or speculation but about visibility" (Tahtheeb Al-Ahkaam, vol. 4, p. 156).

However, if a follower of Islamic jurisprudence achieves confirmation or contentment (itmenaan), even if it is from experience or practice, that the crescent present on the current horizon, with so and so size (age) and degree (height above horizon) and all aspects influencing its visibility, is capable of being sighted by the naked eye, but was not seen due to clouds, fog, sand storm or other factors, then he/she must act according to the confirmation or contentment he/she achieved.

Question 2: It is said that his eminence (may Allah prolong his life) sometimes does not accept the testimony of witnesses about crescent sighting when it contradicts information provided by astronomers about the impossibility of seeing it, even though testimonies are sensory while astronomers' information are intuitive (i.e. based on speculation), so what is the reason behind that? 

Answer 2: Two points to consider about calculations:

1) What is confirmed by mathematical calculations, and does not depend on personal speculation or interpretation, such as the time of the birth of the crescent, time of its exit from the interlunar state, the degree of its rise above the horizon, percent of illuminated circumference of the moon, and so on, where usually no conflict occurs between astronomers about such aspects, except maybe by miscalculation.

2) What is subject to personal interpretation and speculation and is based on experience and practice, such as some astronomers' statements about the impossibility of seeing the crescent unless it is 6 degrees above the horizon, or at an age of 22 hours, or at so and so distance from the sun, and so on, and in this point there is lots of disagreement and differing opinions (among astronomers).

Thus, if the testimonial of witnesses on crescent sighting is contradictory to the first type of information provided by astronomers (as mentioned in point 1 above), then one can confirm or be content (mutma'in) of the inaccuracy of the testimony. If they state (for example) sighting it while the crescent, according to meticulous calculations, is still in its inter-lunar state or that it sets before sunset, even if two or more testify sighting it, then (their testimony is dismissed).

If, however, testimonies are contradictory to the second type of the information provided by astronomers (as stated in point 2 above), then contentment might be achieved about the inaccuracy of the testimonials, looking at the proofs and evidence, or it may not be achieved. Therefore, if contentment about the inaccuracy of the testimonials is not achieved, and among the witnesses were two just people who their testimony fulfills the requirements of proof, then one must act according to such testimony and there is no room for doubt against it.

In summary, among the conditions for accepting the testimony of two just witnesses about crescent sighting is the lack of confirmation or contentment (itmenaan) that they are wrong, but if they can be proven wrong even by reliable information provided by an astronomer, for example the crescent is still in its inter-lunar state or that it is still very thin such that no such crescent was ever sighted before, then the testimonies do not carry any value (and are dismissed). Otherwise, one can take the testimony and ignore the astronomers' speculation.

Question 4: Why can we not follow the scientific advancements, I mean specialized instruments, with regards to sighting the moon on Eids and the beginning of the months, and we only rely on sighting with the naked eye? 

Answer 4: The reason is because what is understood from the legislative narrations is that what matters in the start of the lunar month is the presence of the crescent in the horizon at the time of sunset at a degree of height and luminescence such that it is possible to observe by the common naked eye without presence of obstacles (i.e. clouds).

Question 6: If the crescent was sighted in one city, does that suffice for another city, or must both cities share the same horizon?

Answer 6: The same horizon must exist between both cities, meaning that visibility of the crescent in one city mandates its visibility in the other city as well if it were not for the presence of obstacles blocking sighting it such as clouds, a mountain and so on. This occurs when the crescent of the other city, according to careful astronomical calculations, has the same or even better (visibility) characteristics than the first city, looking at its size, height from horizon at the time of sunset and the degree away from the sun.

Question 7: What is the law about the crescent that is sighted in one place and not another? 

Answer 7: Every place has its own ruling unless it is confirmed that both places share the same horizon.

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

Hadith on Shrines as Places of Worship from Sahih al-Bukhari

وَأَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ، وَعَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، رضى الله عنهم قَالاَ لَمَّا نَزَلَ بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم طَفِقَ يَطْرَحُ خَمِيصَةً لَهُ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ، فَإِذَا اغْتَمَّ كَشَفَهَا عَنْ وَجْهِهِ وَهْوَ كَذَلِكَ يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْيَهُودِ وَالنَّصَارَى، اتَّخَذُوا قُبُورَ أَنْبِيَائِهِمْ مَسَاجِدَ ‏"‏‏.‏ يُحَذِّرُ مَا صَنَعُوا‏.‏

Hadith #4443, Kitab al-Maghazi (Military Expeditions of the Prophet Muhammad), Sahih al-Bukhari: 

Narrated from 'Ubaydullah bin 'Abdullah bin 'Utba, 'Aisha, and 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, may God be pleased with them: They said: "When God's Messenger became seriously ill, he started to cover his face with his woolen sheet, and when he felt short of breath, he removed it from his face and said, "That (this) is so.  May God curse (God's curse) be upon the Jews and the Christians [who have taken] took the graves of their prophets [as] places of worship; he intended to warn [the Muslims against] what they had done."

This hadith is mawquf (attributed to one of the Sahaba).  A version of this hadith also appears in Sahih Muslim.

Friday, April 25, 2014

Grand Ayatullah Bashir Najafi's Statement Criticizing the Process of Presenting the Shari'a Personal Status Law in Iraq

توضيح مكتب سماحة آية الله العظمى المرجع الديني الكبير الشيخ بشير حسين النجفي (دام ظله) حول قانون الأحوال الشخصية الجعفرية

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ
الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام على محمد وآله الطاهرين واللعن الدائم على شانئيهم إلى يوم الدين..
مع تجدد الحديث عن قانون الأحوال الشخصية الجعفرية، نعتقد أن هذا القانون رافق طرحه الإساءة غير المسبوقة إلى المرجعية التي ضحت عبر التأريخ للمواقف الحقة بالغالي والنفيس حتى الدماء.
ونثبت هنا موقفنا أن الاعتداء على المرجع العظيم آية الله العظمى السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني (دام ظله) هو اعتداء على شخصية تمثل رمزاً للمذهب الإمامي وعلى سمو مقام المرجعية ـ وهو أمر مرفوض ومدان قطعاً ولا يجوز السكوت عليه ـ نقف مع سماحة السيد حفظه الله صفاً واحداً ولا نتهاون في هذا الأمر مطلقاً.
ويجب أن يصدر اعتذار من الجهة المعتدية بالطرق اللائقة لتصحيح الموقف.
ولقد بينا سابقاً لذوي الشأن أن هذا القانون رغم ضرورته وأهميته لدينا إلا أنه ينطوي على شطحات في الصياغات الفقهية والقانونية ولا يوافق عليها فقيه؛ فلهذا يجب الاهتمام بما دعت المرجعية إليه من التريث بالموافقة على المسودة الفاقدة للمقومات، ونرى ضرورة عرض هذا القانون على سماحة المرجع الديني العظيم آية الله العظمى السيد السيستاني (دام ظله) والاستنارة برأيه.
نسأل الله الهداية للجميع، وإبعاد الشر عن ساحة الحوزة ورموزها، وفق الله الجميع لإتباع المعصومين والتمسك بهديهم. والسلام..

Grand Ayatullah Bashir Najafi's Message to the 27th International Islamic Unity Conference in Tehran


9 Rabeeul Awwal 1435 AH – 11 January 2014 AD
No. 39

In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most merciful

        Praise and thanks are due to Allah for guidance to His religion and way. Peace and blessings are up on the master of the two universes and the holder of the best law to humans Mohammad Bin Abdullah and his immaculate progeny, and permanent cures is on their enemies till the Day of Judgement.
      Allah (the glorious) says "You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah"
        The Islamic law assigns the Muslim many liabilities. The most important two are: The first is reforming the relationship between the Muslim and Allah through worshiping and obeying His Messenger and successors. The second is the relationship among the slaves of Allah. In this conference, we focus on the second issue as the title of the conference indicates. Allah is the all helper.
         This relationship is divided into two parts: those who follow the religion of Islam and those who disagree with Muslims according to their religions or sects.
        In the first type of relationship, Muslims, as manifested in the holy Quran, should pay attention to blend in and live peacefully without affecting other's freedom. Rather, Muslims should attempt to create rapprochement among Muslims regardless to their religious, sectarian, national, or spatial differences. The holy Quran advises us to do this as in the holy verse "The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And fear Allah that you may receive mercy". This eloquent discourse urges us to create the spiritual connection in a way that it becomes important to every Muslim's life. This can be achieved once the self is reformed. Allah says "O you who have believed, let not a people ridicule [another] people; perhaps they may be better than them; nor let women ridicule [other] women; perhaps they may be better than them. And do not insult one another and do not call each other by [offensive] nicknames. Wretched is the name of disobedience after [one's] faith. And whoever does not repent - then it is those who are the wrongdoers". The Holy Quran urges us to abide by the Islamic tenets regarding this issue. Allah says "But if they had done what they were instructed, it would have been better for them and a firmer position [for them in faith]". Allah also orders us to have rapport, mutual cooperation and support, as in the holy verse "And if they seek help of you for the religion, then you must help, except against a people between yourselves and whom is a treaty. And Allah is Seeing of what you do". Therefore, Allah praises the loyal people in the verse "And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment". Accordingly, Allah considers the Muslim who is truly loyal as a loyal slave to Him "O you who have believed, if you support Allah , He will support you and plant firmly your feet". Muslims, nowadays, are facing many challenges. The reasons of which are as follows:
1.     Psychological factors, emerging from immoral drives, and inattention to the effect of these factors that are disuniting the nation.
2.     Manipulating with connotations of the Holy Quran in order to spread out the corrupting ideas for implanting the hatred and grudge among one another.
3.     Accusing one another of blasphemy, atheism, and polytheism as what is happening nowadays in Iraq, Syria, Libya and other places.
4.     Political reasons to obtain some privilege and forgetting about the horrible consequences of this. 
         This predicament requires thinkers, on the one hand, and the leaders of Islamic countries, on the other hand, to be serious in preventing the spread of evil that we have mentioned.
       It should be starting out from reforming evil represented by anathematizing Muslims among one another, and spread out to interfere in the social and religious affairs of other countries. The fact is that the Islamic anathema has become one of the most demoralizing acts nowadays. What heinous acts within terrorism we see in a number of Muslim countries is only an inevitable consequence of the hating Anathema (Takfeer).  Thus, religious authorities and state leaders have to prevent the issuance of religious verdicts regarding this matter in order to become one united nation: "Indeed, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in a row as though they are a [single] structure joined firmly", and as narrated about the Prophet (PBUH&HP) that he said: ( the believers in their mutual love, mercy and compassion, like one body, if a member complained to falter, the rest of the body gets fever).
        The second type of relationship is how the Islamic nation deals with other doctrines. If we were able to fix what caused the dispersion and fragmentation, we, then, would be able to communicate with others very easily, because Allah Almighty has promised us of victory if we support and get loyal to Him in His religion. Therefore, we should show the True Islam to the humans as a whole, the true religion that carries the right and is characterized by seeking the extension of Justice, which is the wish of all peaceful humans.
         Since Islam is a religion in conformity with instinct, its spreading among humans was easy, and if Islam spread on the earth; the Islam which is void of Takfeer (Islamic anathema), and Muslims had no grudge among one another, the world would have been better than now. Peace will be spread to all mankind in the world and the divine promise will be achieved: "When the victory of Allah has come and the conquest, And you see the people entering into the religion of Allah in multitudes, Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him. Indeed, He is ever Accepting of repentance" , and the soul of the Prophet (PBUH&HP) and all the souls of Mujahideen for the sake of Islam will get rejoiced when Allah's promise for His beloved Muhammad ibn Abd Allah (PBUH&HP) is achieved. Allah says:"So what yet causes you to deny the Recompense? Is not Allah the most just of judges?"

كلمة سماحة آية الله العظمى المرجع الديني الكبير الشيخ بشير حسين النجفي (دام ظله) في ذكرى المؤتمر الدولي السابع والعشرين للوحدة الإسلامية/ في طهران

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ
الحمد لله على هدايته لدينه، وله الشكر على ما دعا إليه من سبيله، والصلاة والسلام على سيد الكونين حامل أفضل شريعة للخليقة إلى يوم الدين، محمد بن عبد الله وعلى آله الغر الميامين، واللعنة على أعدائهم أجمعين إلى يوم الدين.
قال الله سبحانه: (كُنتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ).
صَدَقَ اللَّهُ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ
أن الشريعة الغراء تحمل كل مسلم مسؤوليات كثيرة، وأبرزها إصلاح العلاقة بينه وبين الله سبحانه من خلال عبادته وطاعته وطاعة رسوله وأولياءه، والثانية العلاقة بينه وبين العباد، ونحن في هذا المؤتمر الموقر نحاول إبراز الاهتمام بالثاني، كما يقتضيه عنوان المؤتمر، ومن الله التوفيق.
وتنقسم العلاقة الی قسمين:
احدهما: علاقته مع أبناء جنسه وأتباع الدين الإسلامي، والذين يحملون على جباههم وسام الإسلام وتاج الإيمان بالله ورسوله محمد بن عبد الله (ص).
والثانية: علاقته مع الذين يخالفون المسلمين بانتماءاتهم الدينية والمذهبية.
وأما المقام الأول: فيجب على المسلم بمقتضى تعاليم القرآن الاهتمام بخلق الإتحاد والتعايش السلمي بما لا يثير حفيظة الآخرين، بل يجب على الكل السعي في خلق التقارب بين المسلمين على اختلاف انتماءاتهم القومية والفئوية والجغرافية والمذهبية، فأن القرآن يدعونا إلى التآلف والاقتراب، فيما بيننا قال الله سبحانه: (إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ)، وهذا التعبير البليغ هو الذي يحثنا على خلق الترابط الروحي بحيث يصبح من مقتضيات حياة كل مسلم النظر والاهتمام بجميع المسلمين قدر المستطاع ويتحقق إذا صلحت نفس السلم تجاه أخيه المسلم: قال سبحانه (لاَ يَسْخَرْ قَومٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُونُوا خَيْراً مِّنْهُمْ وَلاَ نِسَاء مِّن نِّسَاء عَسَى أَن يَكُنَّ خَيْراً مِّنْهُنَّ وَلاَ تَلْمِزُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَلاَ تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ بِئْسَ الاِسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ)، والقرآن الكريم حث على الالتزام بما جاء بالتعليمات الإسلامية في هذا الجانب، قال الله سبحانه: (وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ فَعَلُواْ مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِ لَكَانَ خَيْراً لَّهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ تَثْبِيتاً)، وأمر بالتعاطف والتعاضد والتناصر، قال الله سبحانه: (وَإِنِ اسْتَنصَرُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ فَعَلَيْكُمُ النَّصْرُ إِلاَّ عَلَى قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ وَاللّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ)، ولذلك مدح الله سبحانه النصرة بقوله: (وَالسَّابِقُونَ الأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالأَنصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُواْ عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَداً ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ)، فجعل نصرة  المسلم نصرة  له سبحانه فقال تعالی (يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ)،
والمسلمون اليوم يواجهون تحديات كثيرة ومتنوعة، ويمكن حصر الأسباب فيما يلي:
1) العوامل النفسية الناشئة من الدوافع الغير الأخلاقية، والغفلة عن تأثيرها في تفريق الأمة.
2) التلاعب في مفاهيم القرآن رغبة في نشر الأفكار المنحرفة لحمل البعض ضد البعض.
3) توجيه تهمة الكفر والإلحاد والشرك لبعضهم البعض کما ينطبق اليوم عملياً فی العراق وسوريا وليبيا وغيرها.
4) الدوافع السياسية لكسب بعض المزايا وتناسي عن فضاعة ما يترتب على ذلك.
وهذا المآزق يتطلب من المفكرين من جهة وقادة الدول الإسلامية من جهة أخرى الجدية في الحيلولة دون انتشار المفاسد التي أشرنا إليها.
وينبغي أن يكون التحرك من منطلق إصلاح المفاسد المترتبة على تكفير بعض المسلمين البعض، ويتفرع عليها التدخل في الشؤون الاجتماعية والدينية في الدول الأخرى، والواقع أن التكفير أصبح من أبرز المفاسد الأخلاقية اليوم، وما نشاهده من البشاعة ضمن الإرهاب المنتشر في جملة من البلدان الإسلامية، ما هو إلا نتيجة حتمية للتكفير الممقوت، فعلى مراجع الدين وقادة الدول الحيلولة دون صدور الفتاوى بهذا الشأن لتصبح الأمة جسداً واحداً: (إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ صَفّاً كَأَنَّهُم بُنيَانٌ مَّرْصُوصٌ)، وكما يروى عن النبي (ص) أنه قال: (مثل المؤمنين في توادهم وتراحمهم وتعاطفهم كمثل الجسد الواحد إذا اشتكى منه عضو تداعى له سائر الجسد بالحمى والسهر).
وأما المقام الثاني: وهو تعامل الأمة الإسلامية مع سائر الملل فإذا تمكنا من إصلاح ما سببه التشتت والتشرذم يكون حينئذ التواصل مع الآخرين سهلاً جداً، لأن الله سبحانه قد وعدنا بالنصر إذا نصرناه في دينه، وعلينا حينئذ عرض الإسلام الحقيقي على البرية كلها، وهذا الدين الحنيف يحمل بين طياته جاذبيته التي تتسم بالحق. ويتميز بالسعي في بسط العدل الذي هو أمنية كل ذي مسكة.
وبما إن الإسلام دين يتطابق مع الفطرة كان نشره في البرية سهلاً يسيراً، وإذا أنتشر الإسلام على وجه البسيطة؛ الإسلام الذي يكون خالياً من الدوافع التكفيرية والنوازع الشريرة، وتنزه المسلمون من حقد بعضهم على بعض، كانت الدنيا أفضل مما عليه الآن، ويعم السلام البشرية جمعاء في العالم ويتحقق الوعد الإلهي: (إِذَا جَاء نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ * وَرَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ يَدْخُلُونَ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ أَفْوَاجاً * فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسْتَغْفِرْهُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوَّاباً)، وتفرح روح النبي (ص) وأرواح جميع المجاهدين في سبيل الإسلام حينما يتحقق وعده سبحانه لحبيبه محمد بن عبد الله (ص)، بقوله تعالى: (فَمَا يُكَذِّبُكَ بَعْدُ بِالدِّينِ * أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِأَحْكَمِ الْحَاكِمِينَ). والسلام..

بشير حسين النجفي
النجف الأشرف
9 ربيع الأو